Actions By and Against Firms and Persons Carrying on Business in Names Other than their Own
1. Any two or more persons claiming or being liable as co-partners and carrying on business within the jurisdiction, may sue or be sued in the name of the respective firms, if any, of which such persons were co-partners at the time of the accruing of the cause of action; and any party to an action may in such case apply to the Court for a statement of the names of the persons who were, at the time of the accruing of the cause of action, co-partners in any such firm, to be furnished in such manner, and verified on oath or otherwise, as the Court may direct.
2. When plaintiffs sue in the name of their firm, they or their solicitor shall, on demand in writing by or on behalf of any defendant, forthwith declare in writing the names and places of residence of all the persons constituting the firm on whose behalf the action is brought. If the plaintiffs or their solicitor shall fail to comply with such demand, all proceedings in the action may, upon an application for that purpose, be stayed upon such terms as the Court may direct. When the names of the partners are so declared, the action shall proceed in the same manner, and the same consequences in all respects shall follow, as if they had been named as the plaintiffs in the summons; but all proceedings shall nevertheless continue in the name of the firm.
3. Where persons are sued as partners in the name of their firm under rule 1 the summons shall be served either upon any one or more of the partners or at the principal place within the jurisdiction, of the business of the partnership, upon any person having at the time of service control or management of the partnership business there; and, subject to these Rules, such service shall be deemed good service upon the firm so sued, whether any of the members thereof are out of the jurisdiction or not, and no leave to issue a summons against them shall be necessary: provided that in the case of a co-partnership which has been dissolved to the knowledge of the plaintiff before the commencement of the action, the summons shall be served upon every person within the jurisdiction sought to be made liable.
4. Where a summons is issued against a firm, and is served as directed by rule 3, every person upon whom it is served shall be informed by notice in writing given at the time of such service whether he is served as a partner or as a person having the control or management of the partnership, business, or in both characters. In default of such notice, the person served shall be deemed to be served as a partner.
5. Where persons are sued as partners in the name of their firm, they shall appear individually in their own name, but all subsequent proceedings shall, nevertheless, continue in the name of the firm.
6. Where a summons is served under rule 3 upon a person having the control or management of the partnership business, no appearance by him shall be necessary unless he is a member of the firm sued.
7. (1) Any person served as a partner under rule 3, but who denies that he was a partner or liable as such at any material time may enter an appearance stating therein that he does so as “a person served as a partner in the defendant firm but who denies that he was a partner at any material time.” Such appearance, so long as it stands, shall be treated as an appearance for the firm.
(2) If an appearance is so entered:
(a) the plaintiff may apply to set it aside on the ground that the person entering it was a partner or liable as such, or may leave that question to be determined at a later stage of the proceedings; or
(b) the person entering the appearance may apply to set aside the service on him on the ground that he was not a partner or liable as such, or he may, at the proper time, deliver a defence denying either or both his liability as a partner and the liability of the defendant firm in respect of the plaintiff’s claim.
(3) On the application of either party, an order may at any time be made that either or both of the questions as to the liability of the person served and the liability of the defendant firm may be tried in such manner and at such time as the Court may think fit.
8. (1) Where a judgment or order is against a firm, execution may issue against:
(a) any property of the partnership within the jurisdiction;
(b) any person who has appeared in his own name under rules 5 or 6 or who has admitted on the pleadings that he is, or who has been adjudged to be, a partner;
(c) any person who has been individually served, as a partner, with the summons and has failed to appear.
(2) If the party who has obtained judgment or an order claims to be entitled to issue execution against any other person as being a member of the firm, he may apply to the Court for leave to do so; and the Court may give such leave if the liability be not disputed, or if such liability be disputed may order that the liability of such person be tried and determined in any manner in which any issue or question in an action may be tried and determined. Except as against any property of the partnership, a judgment against a firm shall not render liable, release, or otherwise affect any member thereof who was out of the jurisdiction when the summons was issued, and who has not appeared to the summons unless he has been made a party to the action under Order 11 or has been served within the jurisdiction after the summons in the action was issued.
9. Debts owing from a firm carrying on business within the jurisdiction may be attached under Order 45 although one or more members of such firm may be resident abroad; provided that a person having the control or management of the partnership business, or a member of the firm within the jurisdiction, is served with the garnishee order. An appearance by any member pursuant to an order shall be a sufficient appearance by the firm.
10. The preceding rules of this Order shall apply to actions between a firm and one or more of its members, and to actions between firms having one or more members in common, provided such firm or firms carry on business within the jurisdiction; but no execution shall be issued in such actions without leave of the Court, and, on an application for leave to issue such execution, all such accounts and inquiries maybe directed to be taken and made and all such directions given as may be just.
11. Any person carrying on business within the jurisdiction in a name or style other than his own name, may be sued in such name or style as if it were a firm name; and, so far as the nature of the case will permit, all rules relating to proceedings against firms shall apply.